Центр защиты прав животных «ВИТА»
Главная страница / Home    Карта сайта / Map    Контакты / Contacts


RUS        ENG
РАЗВЛЕЧЕНИЯ ЭКСПЕРИМЕНТЫ ВЕГА́НСТВО МЕХ СОБАКИ и КОШКИ ГУМАННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ
Видео Фото Книги Листовки Закон НОВОСТИ О нас Как помочь? Вестник СМИ Ссылки ФОРУМ Контакты

О нас
Наши принципы
Часто задаваемые вопросы
Как нам помочь?
Волонтерский отдел
Условия использования информации
Как подать заявление в полицию
Вестник Виты
Цитаты
Календарь
Форум
Контакты



ПОИСК НА САЙТЕ:

БИОЭТИКА - почтой


ПОДПИСКА НА НОВОСТИ "ВИТЫ" | RSS
Имя:
E-mail:
yandex-money
№ нашего кошелька: 41001212449697
webmoney
№ нашего кошелька: 263761031012

youtube   youtube   vkontakte   facebook Instagram
     

 

Письмо главы Всемирного общество защиты животных WSPA Питера Дэвиса к Слиске Л.К.

Питер Дэвис, глава Всемирного общества защиты животных WSPA - самой крупной в мире организации по защите животных, объединяющей сотни зоозащитных организаций по всему миру, направил обращение к российским властям с просьбой принять закон в защиту животных от жестокого обращения.

"WSPA получает множество жалоб на жестокое обращение с животными в России - пишет Питер Дэвис в обращении, направленном Путину В.В. и Слиске Л.К. - Мы были разочарованы, узнав, что 245 статья УК РФ, призванная защищать животных от жестокого обращения, практически не работает, а милиция не всегда знает о её существовании".

По словам Константина Сабинина, члена Совета Центра защиты прав животных "Вита" - организации, входящей в состав WSPA, - "Животные России находятся в абсолютно бесправном положении. Например, в г. Плюсcа (Псковская область) из-за бездействия правоохранительных органов живодёры, убившие собаку при помощи бензопилы остались безнаказанными. В течение 2 лет владелец собаки, общественность и российские звёзды неоднократно взывали к прокурору с требованием привлечь виновных по 245 ст. УК РФ за жестокое обращение с животными. Однако, дело было закрыто "за отсутствием состава преступления".

Центр защиты прав животных "Вита" неоднократно обращался к российским властям с просьбой принять Федеральный закон о защите животных от жесткого обращения. Пять лет назад закон прошёл Госдуму и Совет Федерации, но впоследствии был отклонён, что способствовало росту преступности, связанной с использованием животных в различных сферах и усугублением бесправного положения российских животных. Правовой пробел в этой сфере привёл к тому, что чудовищные по своей жестокости преступления в отношении животных, сегодня остаются безнаказанными. Это порождает бесчисленное количество жалоб россиян в Генеральную прокуратуру, Верховный Суд РФ, МВД и другие министерства России. Однако, в отсутствии полноценного законодательства, проблемы, по которым обращаются люди, остаются не решаемыми.

"Проблема отсутствия в России закона в защиту животных волнует не только борцов за права животных и сердобольных граждан. Год назад к президенту РФ с открытым письмом обратились 106 народных артистов России, которые просили главу государства принять многострадальный Федеральный закон о защите животных. Однако, ответ, присланный администрацией президента, иначе, как отпиской, назвать нельзя" - считает К. Сабинин.

Законодательство

Информационный бюллетень "Виты" № 11. 2005 год

Рекомедации по разработке законодательных актов в защиту животных, разработанные WSPA


ANIMAL PROTECTION
LEGISLATION

GUIDANCE NOTES AND SUGGESTED PROVISIONS


August 2004

ANIMAL PROTECTION LEGISLATION

GUIDANCE NOTES AND SUGGESTED PROVISIONS


CONTENTS Page

Section 1:
Introduction 3

Section 2:
Guidance notes 5

Section 3:
General provisions 10

Section 4:
Suggested provisions for farm animals 13

Section 5:
Suggested provisions for animals used in experiments 27

Section 6:
Suggested provisions for companion animals 35

Section 7:
Suggested provisions for animals used in entertainment 41

Section 8:
Further information 44

SECTION 1

INTRODUCTION

Animal protection legislation

The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) aims to promote the laws and enforcement structures designed to provide legal protection for animals.

It is the belief of the WSPA that every nation should have comprehensive animal protection legislation. Animals are sentient creatures, and therefore entitled to recognition as such, and to care and protection against avoidable suffering. The degree of cultural maturity of a society is reflected in its attitude towards its animal population. It is widely recognized that the abuse and exploitation of animals is not only detrimental to the health and welfare of the animals concerned, but also harmful to the moral and spiritual development of the human population.

WSPA's guidance notes and suggested legislative provisions
The WSPA has prepared these legislative guidelines for countries wishing to introduce animal protection legislation or to improve their existing provisions.

These guidance notes are based on WSPA's experience of the introduction of animal protection legislation in a number of countries, and attempt to highlight areas commonly causing difficulties in this process.

The suggested legislative provisions are derived from a comparative study of some of the most progressive animal protection laws already in existence.

What is the WSPA?
The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) is an international non-governmental organization and the largest animal protection federation. It was founded in 1981 as a merger of the World Federation for the Protection of Animals (WFPA: founded in 1950) and the International Society for the Protection of Animals (ISPA: founded in 1959).

The WSPA is working to raise the standards of animal welfare throughout the world.

Our campaigns and projects are developed in partnership with over 450 member societies throughout the world, whose local skills and knowledge are vital to achieving a better environment for animals.

Our vision is to ensure that the principles of animal welfare are universally understood and respected, and that they are protected by effectively enforced legislation.

The WSPA provides technical expertise, guidance and assistance to promote animal welfare world-wide, and liaises with government officials to introduce animal protection legislation or to enforce existing laws.

The WSPA has consultative status with the United Nations, it is an official observer at the Council of Europe, and has a high profile in many other inter-governmental organisations.

The WSPA drafted the originating document on which the Council of Europe's welfare conventions were based, and it still contributes a major input into the animal welfare work of the Council.

What are WSPA's beliefs?
The ethical basis for the WSPA's policies is that it looks beyond the conservation of a species to the welfare of individual animals. It is WSPA's belief that each individual has an intrinsic value, and should therefore be respected and protected.

Animals have biologically determined instincts, interests and natures, and can experience pain. Thus the WSPA believes that animals have the right to live their lives free from avoidable suffering at the hands of humans, rather than be used simply as 'raw materials' for the benefit of mankind. Indeed, the WSPA believes that it is the duty of humans to provide for the welfare of other species.

The WSPA believes that all animals kept by, or under the control of humans must be kept in circumstances appropriate to their species. Furthermore, where the physiological and behavioural needs of a species cannot be met, then the species in question must not be kept by man.

The WSPA believes that where the welfare of an animal under human control is in question, the animal must be given the benefit of any doubt. Furthermore, the different purposes for which animals are used must be regularly re-evaluated.

SECTION 2

GUIDANCE NOTES

Introduction
These notes provide a brief and easily accessible reference to key considerations when formulating a legal framework for animal protection. Each country will need to take full account of its particular national situation in addition, and its existing and planned obligations in this field (e.g. international or regional conventions to which it has acceded, or intends to accede).

International conventions
At the moment there is no international agreement concerning the care of animals. The one region where agreements have addressed the concerns of animals is in Europe. While these are certainly a step forward, they have the inherent limitation of being restricted only to Europe. However, they represent an important depositary of ideas concerning how to place animal issues in an international law context.

European conventions/ legislation
The Council of Europe (COE) has five animal welfare conventions, which cover: -

" Farm Animals
" Transport
" Slaughter
" Animal Experimentation
" Pet (Companion) Animals

Furthermore, there are various recommendations under these conventions. A summary of these conventions is available from the WSPA on request. The WSPA's suggested legislative provisions take into account key Council of Europe provisions.

Some animal welfare legislation also exists at the European Union (EU) level. The main areas covered by this legislation are: -

" Transport
" Slaughter
" Egg-Laying Hens
" Veal Calves and Pigs
" Experimentation
" Drift Netting
" Seals
" Fur Trapping
" Conservation/Wild Birds
" Zoos

Enhancing animal protection
To improve the status of animals in any country, the WSPA suggests that: -

(1) Legal provisions be developed to ensure the humane treatment of animals by human beings in any area in which humans have the potential to abuse, exploit or otherwise cause unnecessary suffering or injury to animals.

(2) Humane education programmes be established to teach respect for animals, to focus on their intrinsic value, and to nurture responsible stewardship.

(3) Encouragement and assistance be given to voluntary humane societies as one way of promoting the humane ethic.

Legislation alone is insufficient to bring about a real change in the attitudes and practical protection afforded to animals. To be really effective, it needs both the popular support of a humane, caring society and proper enforcement.

Legislation aims and objectives
In drafting protective legislation, it can be helpful to include the reasons why the legislation is being introduced. Key reasons, such as the sentiency of animals, their capacity for suffering, the moral and spiritual decline caused by cruelty, the development of societies, the degree of cultural maturity etc., which have been set out earlier in this publication, could be incorporated.

The 'preamble' of the law would be the appropriate place to include the purpose/objectives of animal protection legislation.

Definitions
Legal definitions are the core of animal protection legislation as they define the outer parameters/boundaries of protection. For example, what is an 'animal' (does the definition exclude invertebrate species, should wild animals be included or human species specifically excluded?). There have been many different definitions of the word 'animal', and the consequences of the chosen definition should be given careful consideration. According to the British Secretary of State's Standards of Modern Zoo Practice, 'animal' means any mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish, insect or other multi-cellular organism that is not a plant or fungi.

What constitutes cruelty? - Should terms such as 'unnecessary suffering' be used, and if they are, should these be defined to avoid any doubt? If inspection is envisaged, what/who is an inspector? Whenever a term is used which has no accepted definition (especially where this has not been determined under law), a specific definition should be considered. The early definition of all key terms will facilitate interpretation and enforcement.

Level of legislation
The individual country's legislative structure will need to be taken into account when assessing the best approach for the draft law.

Constitution
Not all countries have a written constitution. However, where a written constitution does exist, it would be a good objective to include the principle of animal protection into the constitution. This may be more acceptable politically if it is linked to environmental protection - a move that would be supported by a powerful lobby of animal protection and environmental organizations and supporters.

Primary legislation
Outlines general principles, defines areas to be covered by subsequent detailed regulations, identifies the government department (or other body) responsible for subordinate/secondary legislation etc. i.e. It sets down the guiding principles and leaves detailed provisions for the specified government departments to elaborate.

Subordinate/ secondary legislation
Detailed regulations covering a specific area. To be formulated by relevant government departments on the basis of expert advice, and consultations with interested parties.

Working instructions
Apart from the legislation, it may be helpful to formulate both working instructions for those enforcing the legislation (i.e. inspector's instructions) and "codes of conduct" (i.e. guidelines for those needing to comply with the legislation). Reference to the codes of conduct can form an integral part of the legislative and enforcement process.

The issue (and acknowledgement of receipt) of an appropriate code of conduct giving detailed advice on the care/protection of animals leaves the individual who has responsibility for the animals with no defence against any subsequent charge of causing suffering. If that person has not complied with the code of conduct, then they can be judged as lacking 'due diligence'.

Formulation of provisions/ consultation
Detailed provisions in the legislation should be formulated in consultation with all interested parties (i.e. including industry, inspectors, animal welfarists and consumers, as appropriate). In this way, impractical provisions and areas of conflict can be resolved before the law is introduced. This is vital, because any legislation is likely to be unenforceable unless it is deemed to be fair. Technical assessment and specialist advice, for example, scientific or veterinary, should be obtained and used wherever appropriate. In areas where ongoing consultation is envisaged, a permanent advisory body can be constituted, and this could be provided for in the legislation itself.

Enforcement
Who will be responsible for enforcing the legislation? This could, for example, be central government, regional or local government, or an animal protection society.

Will the same body be responsible for enforcing prosecution charges? The enforcing agency should be clearly stated in the legislation, together with the extent of their powers, and the necessary provisions for cost/expenses of enforcement. It may also be wise to provide a duty to enforce. A dedicated animal welfare inspectorate is considered the best option, to allow for specialisation and expertise, and to prevent welfare duties being overlooked in favour of other pressures.

Powers
Powers should be granted in the legislation and clearly defined. For example, enforcement officers should be given powers to take remedial action (e.g. to arrange for treatment or, where necessary, euthanasia in case of suffering), and of confiscation of relevant documentation. Also, consideration should be given as to whether they should be given the power to detain people and vehicles, and on what grounds.

Enforcement officers should be given powers of entry, allowing them to enter upon any land or premises for the purpose of ascertaining whether an offence has been committed.

Phase-out periods
Where unsuitable housing systems (such as veal crates and battery cages) or equipment, are to be phased out, the phase-out period permitted should be no longer than the period the tax authorities allow farmers and agriculturists for depreciation of their capital investment. The phase-out period would only apply to existing systems, since the manufacture, sale, purchase and use of such new systems would be forbidden (apart from the existing stocks available for sale, which would fall under phase-out arrangements).

Penalties
Levels of penalties should be established both for deterrent purposes and to ensure uniform application, and the channel of legal action should be defined (i.e. the level of court). Types of penalties could range from fines to imprisonments and a ban from keeping animals and/or revocation of the relevant licence. There would also need to be a provision for assuming custody and removing animals in danger of cruelty/suffering pending legal action.

Ethical/ advisory committee for animal protection
An ethical committee should be established as a consultancy institution. Its function would be to educate society and to give recommendations regarding animal protection to public institutions. It should be composed of representatives of public and research institutions and of non-governmental organisations.

Aims and objectives of an ethical/advisory committee:

1. The provision of advice on the welfare of animals and the publication of their findings;

2. The furtherance of a fuller understanding of animal welfare within society;

3. The assessment of existing legislation affecting animal welfare and the making of recommendations regarding amendments and additions thereto.

In furtherance of these objectives, the committee will:

1. Undertake independent and objective studies of animal welfare issues and identify where further information is required;

2. Prepare and publish reports;

3. Make available information and research datathat has been obtained, in order to enable Parliamentarian legislation on animal welfare issues to be drafted and debated;

4. Be open to requests for objective views, advice and the carrying out of independent studies concerned with the welfare of animals;

5. Keep new issues and developments of concern in the sphere of animal protection under review.

Various working groups can be formed within the committee/ council with specialized knowledge in the following areas:

a) Farm Animals
b) Companion (Pet) Animals
c) Wild Animals
d) Experimental Animals

SECTION 3

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Introduction
The following General Provisions apply to all animals. More detailed provisions on animals used for particular purposes, such as farm animals, appear in later sections. The purpose of the General Provisions is to ensure that a country's legislation includes certain fundamental provisions.

Paragraphs 1-4 establish a number of basic safeguards: owners and keepers are made responsible for animals' health and welfare, and are required to provide for their core needs of food and water, shelter, exercise and companionship. The suggested provisions prohibit the causing of avoidable suffering, pain or distress to animals as well as beating and overworking them.

Other valuable protections included in this section:

" Prohibit continuous or unnecessary restrictions on freedom of movement if this involves suffering, pain or distress;

" Prohibit the use of animals for fighting;

" Require sick or injured animals to be provided with care without delay;

" Regulate the carrying out of surgical operations; some of which are prohibited altogether;

" Require the destruction of animals to be carried out as quickly and painlessly as possible; some methods of slaughter are prohibited altogether;

" Require animal attendants to be trained and certified.

Suggested legislative provisions
The following legislative provisions should be included to establish basic protection for animal welfare:

1. Any person owning or keeping an animal shall be responsible for its health and welfare.

2. Any person owning or keeping an animal shall provide accommodation, care and attention, all of which take into account the animal's physiological and behavioural needs, including appropriate food and water, shelter, exercise, and companionship.

3. No person shall cause an animal avoidable suffering, pain or distress.

4. No person shall beat, overload, overwork or overdrive an animal.

5. No person shall encourage, aid, attend/assist at or participate in the fighting, baiting, harassing, or tormenting of animals. No person shall breed, sell, or offer for sale animals for fighting purposes.

6. Animals shall not be kept unless they belong to one of the species or categories permitted by order of the competent authority.

7. The freedom of movement of an animal shall not be continuously or unnecessarily restricted, if this entails suffering, pain, or distress.

8. Any person keeping an animal shall ensure that the animal is attended to at least once a day. Animals kept in extremely extensive (range) conditions may need to be exempted from such a provision. However, regular attention should still be required.

9. Sick or injured animals shall be provided with care without delay. Where necessary, veterinary advice shall be sought. Where euthanasia is necessary to relieve suffering, this shall be done immediately by a qualified or competent person, and with minimum suffering, pain and distress.

10. Any surgical operation which may inflict suffering on an animal, except insignificant pain of a transient nature, shall be performed only by a licensed/registered veterinarian. Suffering and pain shall be reduced to the greatest possible extent.

11. Surgical and similar operations or painful procedures intended to change the appearance of an animal shall not be performed; nor shall operations or procedures altering or interfering with the regular gait or stance of an animal be performed.

12. Other surgical operations on animals, in which part or parts of the animal body is or are removed or damaged shall not be carried out, unless: -

a) The operation is performed to neuter the animal;
b) The operation is performed simultaneously with the neutering to remove the tip of the ear of a feral cat as a visible indication that the animal has been neutered;
c) The operation is necessary for medical reasons;
d) The operation is permitted or prescribed by or in pursuance of any legislative provisions; or
e) The operation is permitted and controlled by an order issued by the competent authority.

13. Animals which have undergone a surgical operation prohibited under paragraphs 11 or 12 above, shall not be kept in stock to be sold, offered for sale, or bought.

14. Animals having undergone a surgical operation prohibited under paragraphs 11 or 12 above, shall not be entered for shows, inspections or competitions.

15. Any person who wishes to destroy an animal shall ensure that it is destroyed as quickly and as painlessly as possible. Destruction by drowning, hanging, beating, suffocation, poisoning or other oral methods, or electrocution (as distinct from electronarcosis) shall not take place. The competent authority shall lay down additional regulations/instructions regarding methods to be used for 'pest' control. These rules shall, however, take account of the general provisions of this paragraph.

16. Any person driving or operating a vehicle or bicycle which strikes or injures an animal shall, whenever possible, stop and provide such care and attention to the animal as necessary to relieve pain and aid its recovery. When the animal is a domestic animal, such person shall use reasonable diligence to notify the owner of the animal or the police.

17. International trade in live animals may only be carried out under licence/permit from the competent authority. The competent authority shall lay down rules on maximum journey times and conditions for transport, as well as taking the necessary measures to protect certain species (CITES implementation). International transport shall be prohibited for species with particular welfare problems in transit.

18. Wild animals shall not be kept without a licence/permit issued by the competent authority.

19. Animals shall only be sold or given into the care of children under the age of 16, if the person having custody of the child gives his written consent and agrees to take supervisory control of the animals' welfare.

20. The application of genetic engineering to animals or embryos shall be prohibited. If this prohibition is not enacted, there shall be a provision stipulating that animals resulting from genetic engineering shall not be released on to farms or into the environment until several generations have been evaluated to ensure that no harmful side effects arise.

21. Patents shall not be granted on animals or processes for producing animals.

22. Training for animal attendants and certification of ability shall be implemented, covering animal behaviour, needs, keeping and care (including handling). The competent authority shall lay down the rules on training and certification.

23. Veterinarians shall always put the welfare of animals first, regardless of any commercial or professional interest. A veterinarian shall do his utmost at all times to safeguard the health and welfare of animals.

24. The competent authority shall make regulations to:

a) Protect and regulate animals in the farming situation, including animals in transport, slaughter and, if applicable markets;
b) Protect and regulate animals used for experimental purposes;
c) Protect and regulate companion (pet) animals;
d) Protect and regulate the use of animals for entertainment purposes (including for display).

SECTION 4

SUGGESTED LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS FOR FARM ANIMALS (INCLUDING IN TRANSPORT AND IN SLAUGHTER)

Introduction
The first main section deals with welfare on the farm; subsequent sections focus on the transport and slaughter of farm animals. The provisions in the first section are designed to discourage industrial farming (also known as factory farming), as this imposes serious health and welfare problems on the animals involved. Where, nonetheless, animals are farmed industrially, the section on "welfare on the farm" aims to ensure that they benefit from certain safeguards. This section recognizes that welfare problems can also arise in extensive systems, and contains provisions designed to prevent such problems.

The principles underlying this section are based on the Five Freedoms which have traditionally been used as a framework for considering animal welfare. These are, Freedom from hunger and thirst; Freedom from discomfort; Freedom from pain, injury and disease; Freedom from fear and distress; and Freedom to behave in a natural manner.

A core provision, from which much of the section flows, stipulates that owners and keepers must provide animals with accommodation, care and attention that takes account of their physiological and behavioural needs, including appropriate food and water, shelter, exercise and the companionship of other animals of their own species.

Following on from this principle, the suggested provisions prohibit extreme restrictions of movement and require animals to be given the freedom of movement that is appropriate to their physiological and behavioural needs.

The section recognizes the important part played by housing systems in determining the level of welfare. It also provides that the Five Freedoms must be fulfilled, and in particular allow animals to perform their natural behaviours.

The crucial importance of good stockmanship in attaining high welfare standards is recognised by a requirement for all stockmen to be trained and certified.

Suggested legislative provisions

General

1. Any person owning or keeping a farm animal (even temporarily, such as in the role of a transporter or slaughterhouse) shall be responsible for its health and welfare.

2. No person shall cause a farm animal any avoidable suffering, pain or distress.

Welfare on the farm

Housing and care

1. Any person owning or keeping a farm animal shall provide accommodation, care and attention in keeping with its physiological and behavioural needs, including appropriate food and water, shelter, exercise and companionship.

2. Any person keeping a farm animal shall ensure such animal is attended to at least once a day. Animals kept in extremely extensive (range) conditions may need to be exempted from such provisions, but regular attention should nonetheless be stipulated.

3. With due regard to its species and in accordance with established experience and scientific knowledge, the freedom of movement of an animal shall not be restricted in such a way as to cause it suffering, pain or distress. The animal shall be given the space appropriate to its physiological and behavioural needs, particularly where it is continuously or regularly confined or tethered.

4. Housing systems and installations for farm animals may only be manufactured, advertised, marketed and sold if they have first been licensed by the competent authority. The competent authority shall only grant a licence to systems and installations that fulfil the Five Freedoms, and in particular that allow animals to perform their natural behaviours. The cost of this licensing procedure shall be borne by the applicant. Housing systems and installations shall only be licensed by the competent authority if all stipulated requirements are adhered to, and it can be demonstrated that such a system or installations will not adversely affect the welfare of the animals they are intended for. A licence may be subsequently revoked if any of the particulars furnished in the application were subsequently found to be false, or if welfare problems become apparent in the subsequent use that could not be overcome by adjustments or alterations.

5. A prior approval system for housing systems and installations is strongly recommended by the WSPA. However, should any country given its current circumstances consider such a system unfeasible, then at very least it should be stipulated that any new housing systems and installations fulfil the Five Freedoms and, in particular, allow animals to behave in their natural manner. This approach could be further strengthened by the prohibition and phasing out of inappropriate systems and installations; (for example, veal crates for calves, sow stalls and tethers for pregnant pigs, battery cages for egg laying hens).

6. The competent authority shall lay down a transitional period during which housing and installations already on the market may be sold.

7. Any premises or areas in which farm animals are kept shall be designed and maintained in such a way as to satisfy the physiological and behavioural needs of the animals (see provision 4 above). In this regard, it shall be ensured that animals are given the appropriate freedom of movement, particularly when digesting food and water, and when resting. Furthermore, animals shall be protected against wind and weather in accordance with their needs.

a. Consideration should be given to introducing a provision to phase out battery cages. Rules concerning the design, operation and use of alternative production systems should also be detailed.

b. Consideration should be given to introducing a provision to phase out veal crates for calves.

c. Consideration should be given to introducing a provision to phase out sow stalls (also known as sow gestation crates), tethers, and farrowing crates.

8. Animals shall at all times be provided with a sufficient quantity of straw, hay, wood shavings, rice husks or similar material to enable them to engage in their natural behaviours and to act as bedding or, litter for poultry. Fully slatted floors shall be prohibited as they make it difficult to provide straw or the other materials referred to above. Fully perforated floors shall also be prohibited.

9. Detailed rules on the housing of farm animals should be elaborated upon, including aspects such as:

a. The design and construction of pens, stables, cages and the like.
b. The construction of the walls and flooring of pens, stables, cages and the like, in particular focusing on the covering materials to be used for these, bearing in mind the requirements of paragraph 8[the paragraph on straw etc]. The floors of housing must be easily kept skid proof and dry. They must also satisfy the animals' warmth requirements in the resting area.
c. The furnishings of pens, stables, cages and the like, in particular the feeding and drinking water facilities, as well as the facilities provided for animals to perform their natural behaviours.
d. The lighting, ventilation and heating/cooling systems of the pens, stables, cages and the like.
e. The presence and nature of fencing.

10. In general, rules on the size of housing facilities should be treated as minimum standards, otherwise they could become 'set in stone', and mitigate against future beneficial improvements.

11. The technical equipment used in intensive stock-farming systems shall be thoroughly inspected at least once a day, and any defect remedied forthwith. All possible measures necessary to safeguard the welfare of the animals shall be taken immediately.

12. As most animals are herd or flock creatures, they must not be kept in isolation, but in appropriate social groupings. If an enclosure is to be occupied by more than one animal, then the enclosure must take account of group behavioural requirements. Where appropriate to its needs, the possibility for an animal to retreat, hide or avoid other animals must be available, including fittings such as barriers, platforms, etc.

13. Farm animals shall not be continuously kept in the dark. Housing in which animals are kept for all or most of the time shall, wherever possible, be lit by natural daylight. Where this is not possible, a suitable intensity and duration of light shall be provided. The light phase shall not be artificially extended to more than 16 hours a day, or reduced to less than 12 hours.

14. No animal shall be provided with food or liquid in a manner, nor shall such food or liquid contain any substance, which may cause unnecessary suffering or injury.

15. Animals shall not be forcibly fed.

16. All animals shall be fed a balanced diet containing all essential nutrients to assure the animals' good health and normal development and behaviour. Animals shall be provided with a sufficient quantity of food to prevent hunger. Clean water shall always be provided. Calves shall be fed so that they receive sufficient fibrous food and iron. Food additives that are detrimental to the animals' health shall be prohibited.

17. Aquatic and semi-aquatic animals (including ducks and mink) shall be provided with bathing water.

18. Where appropriate, breeding and laying animals shall be provided with suitable nesting materials and nesting areas.

Non-therapeutic mutilations and invasive or surgical procedures

Introduction
Mutilations such as tail docking, castration and de-beaking are commonplace, many of which are unnecessary. Farmers tail-dock piglets to prevent tail biting and de-beak hens to prevent feather pecking. However, scientific research shows that both tail biting and feather pecking can best be prevented by keeping the animals in good conditions, instead of by tail-docking and de-beaking. Such mutilations should be prohibited, as should the castration of piglets, lambs and many cattle. Strict regulations should be placed on those mutilations that are permitted.

1. Consideration should be given to phasing out the de-beaking of birds. In any event, no more than the tip of a beak should be removed, if permitted, and any shortening of a beak to the extent where the animal can no longer eat normally should be considered an offence.

2. Consideration should be given to phasing out the tail-docking of pigs. In any event, no more than the tip of the tail should be removed.

3. The competent authority shall issue an order specifying which non-therapeutic mutilations, invasive or surgical procedures are prohibited and which are permitted. This should include details of the conditions under which such procedures can be performed, i.e. the methods, whether by veterinarian or trained individual, the use of anaesthesia, age restrictions etc.

Sick animals and veterinary treatment
Sick or injured farm animals shall be provided with care without delay. Where necessary, veterinary advice shall be sought immediately. Where early slaughter is deemed necessary to prevent further suffering, this shall be done immediately by a qualified or competent person, without transporting the animal if this would adversely affect the animals' welfare, and with the minimum of suffering, pain and distress.

Breeding

Introduction
Selective breeding for improved productivity is common in modern farming. In several cases this leads to serious health and welfare problems for the animals involved. For example, meat chickens have been bred to reach their slaughter weight so quickly that often their legs, heart and lungs cannot support the rapidly growing body. As a result, many suffer from painful leg disorders and many die of heart failure. Modern dairy cows have been bred to produce such high milk yields that many suffer from metabolic hunger, digestive disorders, lameness, mastitis and chronic exhaustion. The following provision prohibits the use of genotypes (breeds) that cannot be farmed without a substantial number of individuals suffering from serious health and welfare problems.

1. No animal shall be stocked for farming purposes unless it can reasonably be expected, on the basis of its genotype or phenotype, that it can be kept without detrimental effects to its health or welfare.

Natural or artificial breeding or breeding procedures which cause or are likely to cause suffering or injury to any of the animals involved shall not be practised.

Training and Certification
2. Training and certification shall be provided of all stockmen handling farm animals (at any stage during their rearing, keeping, transport or slaughter). The competent authority shall lay down detailed rules on such training and certification, which will cover areas such as animal behaviour, needs, keeping and care (including handling).

Transport

Introduction
Millions of animals a year worldwide are transported over long distances to slaughter or for further fattening. Animals often suffer greatly during these journeys from a range of problems including overcrowding; insufficient headroom; deprivation of food and water; extremes of heat or cold; inadequate ventilation; and the transportation of ill or injured animals. Welfare problems can also occur during short journeys.

The provisions in this section are designed to prevent welfare problems and to avoid animals suffering from mistreatment or neglect during transport.

Suggested legislative provisions

Fundamental requirement
Animals shall not be transported in a way which is likely to cause injury or undue suffering.

Training
Personnel who drive livestock vehicles or handle animals during transport should be trained and have the necessary competence and knowledge to care appropriately for the animals in their charge. Drivers should not accelerate, decelerate or turn corners at excessive speed.

Authorisation of transporters
Firms which transport animals on long journeys should be registered and authorised by the appropriate authority. The authorisation may be suspended or withdrawn in the event of repeated or serious breaches of this code.

Handling of animals
1. Animals shall not be handled with excessive force, nor in any way which is likely to create unnecessary fear, injury or suffering.

2. During loading, unloading and the journey itself:

a) The use of stock whips or canes shall not be permitted,

b) Animals shall not be struck or kicked,

c) Animals shall not be suspended by mechanical means,

d) Animals shall not be lifted or dragged by the head, ears, horns, legs, tail or fleece, or in any other painful way,

e) Instruments which administer electric shocks should not be used,

f) Prods, sticks or other instruments with pointed ends shall not be used.

Fitness for transport
1. No animal shall be transported unless it is fit for the intended journey. When any doubt exists about an animal's fitness to travel veterinary opinion should be sought.

2. Animals that are injured or that present physiological weaknesses or pathological processes shall not be considered fit for transport. In particular, they shall not be considered fit for transport if:

a) They are unable to move independently without pain or to walk unassisted,

b) They present a severe open wound or prolapse,

c) They have severe haemorrhages,

d) They are only able to stand after being forced to their feet,

e) They are blind or their eyesight is severely impaired.

3. Pregnant females should not be transported if 75% or more of the expected gestation period has already passed, except for local farm transport reasons. Females should not be transported for at least one week after giving birth.

4. Newborn animals in which the navel has not completely healed shall not be transported.

5. When animals become ill or are injured during transport, they shall receive first-aid treatment as soon as possible. They shall, where practicable, receive appropriate veterinary treatment and, if necessary, undergo emergency slaughter in a way which does not involve unnecessary suffering.

6. Animals shall not be exported or transported over long distances unless:

a. The animals are accompanied by a certificate issued by an official veterinarian appointed by the competent authority, stating that he deems the animals fit for such transport;

b. The animals are provided with or accompanied by the identification marks or documents indicated on the certificate;

c. The animals have been loaded under the supervision of an official veterinarian; and

d. The official veterinarian is satisfied that the vehicle or vessel in which the animals are to travel complies with the requirements of the law, and will not cause any welfare problems during the journey.

Lactating females
Lactating females not accompanied by their offspring shall not be transported for long periods. However, where this is unavoidable, they shall be milked shortly before loading and at intervals of not more than 12 hours during the journey.

Delays
To avoid animals being kept for unnecessarily long periods on the vehicle:

1. They should be loaded as close as possible to the time of departure.

2. They should be transported without delay to the place of destination.

3. In order that importation and transit formalities may be completed as quickly as possible, border and control posts shall be notified beforehand as to consignments of animals arriving. In such formalities, priority should then be given to consignments of animals.

4. On arrival at their destination, the animals should be unloaded as soon as possible.

5. All available measures shall be taken to avoid or reduce to a minimum the suffering of animals in cases when strikes or other unforeseen circumstances impede the strict application of these provisions.

Loading and unloading
1. Only a suitable, properly designed and constructed ramp, lift or loading bay shall be used for loading and unloading. Side barriers shall be provided to prevent animals falling off or escaping.

2. Ramps shall be equipped with foot battens to prevent animals from slipping.

3. Ramps shall not be too steep for the age and species being transported.

4. Any step at the top or bottom of the ramp shall not be so high that animals of the age and species being transported are likely to be caused injury or unnecessary suffering.

5. Loading should be supervised, where possible, by a veterinarian.

Separation
Unfamiliar animals shall, where possible, not be mixed. In particular, the following animals should be separated during transport:

a. Animals of different species,

b. Animals of significantly different sizes or ages,

c. Uncastrated adult males (such animals should be separated from females and from each other),

d. Animals with horns and without horns,

e. Animals hostile to each other,

f. Tied and untied animals,

g. Females in oestrus.

The above requirements for separation shall not apply to females accompanied by dependent young.

Tying of animals
Animals shall not be tied by the horns, antlers, nose rings nor by legs tied together. Horses older than eight months shall wear halters, except for unbroken horses. When animals need to be tied, the ropes or other attachments used shall be strong enough not to break during the transport under normal conditions, and long enough to allow the animals to lie down, eat or drink, as necessary. They shall be designed in such a way as to eliminate any danger of strangulation or injury, and so as to allow animals to be quickly released.

Space allowances
Packing animals either too loosely or too tightly predisposes them to injury. The space allowance will also depend on the length of journey. On long journeys, animals such as pigs, sheep and calves should be given sufficient space to enable all to lie down at the same time.

Headroom
The internal height of the compartment must be sufficient:

a) To enable animals to stand in their natural positions, and

b) To allow air to circulate properly.

Vehicle standards
1. Vehicles and their fittings shall be designed, constructed, maintained and operated so as to:

a) Avoid injury or suffering, and to ensure the safety of the animals. They shall be free of any sharp edges or projections,

b) Protect the animals from inclement weather,

c) Prevent the animals escaping or falling out,

d) Have a floor which is anti-slip and sufficiently strong to bear the animals' collective weight,

e) Provide access to the animals to enable them to be inspected and cared for as and when necessary.

Partitions/ gates
To prevent animals being thrown about during transport, partitions(which are also known as "gates") shall be fitted and used to sub-divide large groups of animals or sub-divide an area which contains fewer animals than its normal capacity.

Partitions shall be constructed and fitted in such a way that animals are not caused injury by their legs being trapped between the bottom of the partition and the vehicle floor, or between the bars of the partition.

Ventilation and temperature
Sufficient ventilation shall be provided during the journey and when the vehicle is stationary to ensure that the needs of the animals are fully met and, in particular, to prevent excessive temperatures and humidity in the vehicle. Animals should not be left for long periods in parked vehicles. When the vehicle is parked, extra ventilation and protection from the sun may be required.

When animals are to be transported in very low temperatures, suitable arrangements shall be made to safeguard their welfare.

Containers
Containers in which animals are transported shall be marked with a symbol indicating the presence of live animals and a sign indicating the upright position. Containers shall be easy to clean, escape proof and shall be so constructed as to ensure the safety of the animals. They shall also allow for the inspection and care of the animals and shall be stowed in such a way, which does not interfere with ventilation. During transport and handling, containers shall always be kept upright and shall not be exposed to severe jolts or shaking.

Litter
The floor of the vehicle should be covered with sufficient litter to absorb droppings and urine unless there are alternative arrangements in place. These must be equally effective for the purpose and for providing comfort to the animals, or unless droppings and urine are regularly removed.

Lighting
Vehicles should be equipped with a means of lighting, fixed or portable, sufficient for the inspection and care of the animals during transport.

Approval of vehicles
Vehicles used to transport animals on long journeys should be subjected to prior inspection and approval by the competent veterinary authority.

Monitoring during transport
The person in charge of the welfare of the animals shall take every opportunity to check them during the journey and to administer, where necessary, the appropriate care. Where possible, vehicles should be fitted with a temperature and humidity monitoring system, together with a warning system to alert the driver when the temperature in the animal compartment(s) reaches the maximum or minimum limit.

Travelling times, water, feed and rest
1. Long distance journeys are likely to have more detrimental effects on the welfare of animals than short ones. Bearing this in mind, animals should be slaughtered near to their place of production. The fattening of animals should take place within or near the place of birth. Wherever possible, a maximum limit of 8 hours should be placed on journeys to slaughter or for further fattening.

2. Animals must be provided with sufficient food, water and rest before, during and after the journey, according to their biological needs. After a specified number of hours of transportation, animals must be unloaded and watered, fed and rested for at least 24 hours.

Special provisions for transport by water
1. The fittings of a vessel shall be such that animals can be transported without injury and suffering. A vessel licence shall be required for each vessel intending to carry live animals, and the competent authority shall only issue a licence when duly satisfied that the vessel and its fittings will cause no animal suffering in transit.

2. Animals shall be properly accommodated in pens or containers.

3. There shall be adequate passageways having access to all pens or containers accommodating the animals. Lighting facilities shall be available.

4. All parts of the vessel where animals are accommodated shall be provided with drainage and shall be kept in a sanitary condition.

5. All parts of the vessel where animals are accommodated shall be equipped with a forced ventilation system to prevent excessive heat, humidity or ammonia.

6. An appropriate instrument approved by the competent authority shall be carried for killing animals, in case humane destruction is necessary.

7. Vessels used for the transport of animals shall, before sailing, be provisioned with such supplies of drinking water and appropriate foodstuffs as shall be considered sufficient by the competent authority of the sending country. Such supplies will have regard to the species and number of animals being transported, as well as to the duration of the voyage.

8. Provisions shall be made for isolating ill or injured animals during the voyage, and first-aid treatment rendered when necessary.

Special provisions for transport by air
1. Animals shall be transported in containers or stalls that comply with International Air Transport Association (IATA) regulations.

2. Precautions shall be taken to avoid extremely high or low temperatures on board, with regard to the species of animals. In addition, severe fluctuations of air pressure shall be avoided.

3. In freight aircraft, an appropriate instrument approved by the competent authority for killing animals shall be carried, in case humane destruction is necessary.

Special provisions for transport by railway
1. Any railway truck in which animals are transported shall be marked with a symbol indicating that living animals are being carried. If no trucks specially adapted for the transport of live animals are obtainable, animals shall be carried in covered trucks, which are capable of travelling at high speed and are equipped with sufficiently large air vents. They shall be constructed so as to prevent the animals from escaping, and ensure their safety. The interior sides of the trucks shall be of wood or other suitable material, completely smooth and fitted with rings or bars at suitable heights to which the animals may be attached.

2. Solipeds shall be tied in such a way that they are all facing the same side of the vehicle or facing each other. However, young, unbroken animals should not be tied.

3. Large animals shall be loaded in such a way as to allow an attendant to move between them.

4. When the separation of animals is required (in compliance with the regulatory provisions), this may be affected by tying them in separate parts of the truck, if space permits, or by means of suitable partitions.

5. When assembling trains and during all other movements of trucks, all precautions shall be taken to avoid the violent jolting of trucks containing live animals.

Slaughter

Introduction
The central principle of this section is that animals should be slaughtered in a manner that causes as little pain and distress as possible. This means that animals should either be killed by a method that causes immediate death or a stunning method should be used that causes immediate unconsciousness which lasts until the animal is dead. Moreover, the time between stunning and throat cutting must be kept as short as possible to prevent animals recovering from the stunning.

Further provisions are designed to ensure that animals are properly treated in the time between arriving at the slaughterhouse and being killed.

Suggested legislative provisions
1. Animals shall only be killed by a method which either involves instantaneous killing or that begins with instantaneously rendering the animal unconscious and ends in death, without the recovery of consciousness. In the case of solipeds, ruminants and pigs, only the following stunning methods shall be permitted:

a. Mechanical means employing instruments which administer a blow or penetrate the brain;

b. electronarcosis.

2. The stunning device shall be applied to the correct head position to produce an immediate stun that lasts until death. The competent authority shall publish guidelines on the correct head position for different stunning methods and different species.

3. In the case of electrical stunning, sufficient current shall be applied to each animal to produce an immediate stun that lasts until death. The competent authority shall publish guidelines on the amount of current to be used for each species.

4. All animals should be stuck or bled as soon as possible after stunning, and in all cases soon enough to ensure no recovery of consciousness.

5. Gas killing may be used provided that the gas mixture induces unconsciousness followed by death in a non-aversive manner.

a. Use of the puntilla, hammer or pole axe shall be prohibited. Drowning and suffocation shall also be prohibited.

b. There shall be training and certification of all personnel involved in the slaughter process. The competent authority shall lay down detailed rules on the training and certification of slaughtermen, which will cover areas such as animal behaviour, animal handling, slaughter equipment and its correct maintenance and use, all welfare aspects of slaughter (including physiology) and quality implications of poor handling and slaughter.

c. No instruments, apparatus or installations for the stunning, killing or restraint of animals shall be used without first obtaining a licence from the competent authority. (See paragraph 7 below). The cost of licensing shall be borne by the manufacturer or, if already installed, the user.

d. The competent authority will lay down a transitional period during which housing systems and installations already on the market may be sold and used.

e. The competent authority will also carry out periodic checks on the instruments and apparatus used for slaughter, in order to ensure that they are licensed, well maintained and in effective working order.

6. Animals shall not be beaten or roughly treated. The use of electric prods shall be avoided.

7. Where necessary to safeguard their welfare, animals shall be restrained immediately before slaughter. However, no means of restraint causing avoidable suffering shall be used; animals' hind legs shall not be tied nor shall they be suspended before stunning, apart from poultry and rabbits, and then only providing stunning takes place directly after suspension. Animals shall not be restrained by having their eyes injured or their tendons cut.

8. Sick or injured animals shall be slaughtered immediately.

9. The competent authority may make special provisions in the case of emergency slaughter, for example, in the case of health/disease controls or euthanasia (sick/injured animals). However, in such cases, the animal's welfare shall be given maximum protection under the given circumstances.

10. Slaughter operations (other than stunning and bleeding/sticking) shall only commence after an animal's death.

11. Animals shall not be taken to the place of slaughter unless they can be slaughtered immediately.

12. Animals which are not to be slaughtered immediately shall be lairaged.

13. Slaughterhouses shall be equipped with a sufficient number of stalls and pens for the lairaging of the animals, with necessary space and segregation, and protection from the effects of adverse weather.

14. The floor of areas where animals are unloaded, moved, kept waiting or temporarily based, shall not be slippery. The floor shall be such that it can be cleaned, disinfected and thoroughly drained of all liquids.

15. Slaughterhouses shall have covered areas for feeding and drinking.

16. Animals which spend the night at the slaughterhouse shall be housed and given the opportunity to lie down.

17. Animals naturally hostile to each other on account of their species, sex, age or origin, shall be separated from each other.

18. Animals which have been transported in cages, baskets or crates shall be slaughtered as soon as possible; otherwise they shall be watered and fed, as appropriate.

19. If animals have been subjected to high temperatures in humid weather, they shall be cooled down.

20. Where climatic conditions make it necessary (e.g. high humidity, low temperatures), animals shall be placed in well-ventilated accommodation. During foddering the stalls shall be adequately lit.

21. Animals shall be offered water on arrival at the slaughterhouse, unless they are conducted as soon as possible to the place of slaughter.

22. With the exception of animals to be slaughtered within 12 hours of their arrival, they shall subsequently be given moderate quantities of food and water at appropriate intervals.

23. Feeding and watering receptacles shall be provided which will permit the animals to feed and drink undisturbed.

24. Whilst in lairaging awaiting slaughter, the condition and state of health of the animals shall be inspected at least every morning and evening.

Markets
Marketing practices which involve the physical amassing of live animals should be avoided, whereever possible. However, where livestock markets already exist, a licensing scheme should be established to ensure adequate physical conditions (housing, penning, feeding and watering points, shelter, space, etc.) and standards of husbandry (care, attention, ill or injured animals not to be brought to market, handling, use of bedding, provision of food and water etc.). There shall also be control (regular checking of such markets) by the competent authority.

SECTION 5

SUGGESTED LEGISLATION FOR EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

Introduction
The main principles governing the proposed legislation are the 'Three Rs', that is the methods of research which involve: no use of animals ('replacement'); the use of fewer animals ('reduction'); or less suffering than equivalent research ('refinement').

Based on these principles, the proposed legislation establishes a scheme whose main features are:

" Permissible procedures. It defines the kind of procedures that are permissible. For example, procedures may only be carried out for certain specified purposes. Moreover, specified steps must be taken to ensure that research does not involve any repetition of previous work done by others.

" Project licences. Only projects that are licensed may be carried out. The responsible authority may only grant a licence if it is satisfied that the purpose of the planned programme cannot be achieved by any other reasonably practicable method not entailing the use of animals. In determining whether to grant a licence, the responsible authority has to balance the possible suffering of the animals concerned with the benefit likely to be accrued as a result of the programme.

" Personal licences. No one may carry out a procedure except under a personal licence.

" All animals used in procedures must be specifically bred for that purpose and must come from a licensed breeding or supplying establishment.

" Procedures may only be carried out in licensed user establishments.

" Certain standards of housing and care are established.

Suggested legislative provisions

Definitions
For the purposes of drafting legislation, the following legal definitions are recommended for the words and expressions below:

a. Animal: all non-human vertebrates and also such invertebrates, free-living larval and/or reproducing larval forms, as well as foetal and embryonic forms as are included in Schedule 1 from time to time, on the basis that they are capable of feeling pain.

b. Breeding establishment: any establishment where animals are bred specifically with a view to their possible use elsewhere in a procedure.

c. Data-holder: any person who holds, or who has the legal right to obtain, the results of a procedure.

d. Duplicate animal testing: a procedure which is carried out because the person concerned does not know that relevant data from previous procedures already exists or is unable to access such data.

e. Establishment: any building or group of buildings, whether mobile or permanent, utilised as a breeding, supplying or user establishment.

f. Experimental animal: an animal bred or supplied for possible use in a procedure or an animal used in a procedure.

g. Medicine: any substance or article (not being an instrument, apparatus or appliance) which is manufactured, sold or supplied for use wholly or mainly in either or both of the following ways:

" Use by being administered to one or more human beings or animals for a medicinal purpose;
" Use as an ingredient in the preparation of a substance or article which is to be administered to one or more human beings or animals for a medicinal purpose.

h. Procedure: any use of an animal for experimental or other scientific purpose, which may cause it pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm including:
" Any course of action intended, or liable, to result in the birth of an animal in any such condition;
" The extraction of tissue, organ or other part from an animal for an experimental or scientific purpose (regardless of whether or not the animal is first killed); and
" A procedure which would have caused pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm but for the use of anaesthesia, analgesia or equivalent methods;
" but excluding: (i) the least painful methods accepted in the modern practice of humane killing or marking an animal; and (ii) non experimental agricultural or clinical veterinary practices.

i. Programme: closely-related, specified procedures.

j. Research: work designed to test a hypothesis.

k. Responsible authority: governmental authority designated to apply this [Act].

l. Suffering: any experience which an animal does not desire, including pain, confinement, unnatural housing or environmental conditions, distress or any other form of harm.

m. Supplying establishment: any establishment, other than a breeding establishment, from which animals are supplied with a view to their possible use in procedures.

n. The 'Three Rs': methods of research which involve: (a) no use of animals ('replacement'); or (b) the use of fewer animals than equivalent research ('reduction'); or (c) less suffering than equivalent research ('refinement').

o. User establishment: any facility where animals are used in procedures.


Permissible procedures
1. A procedure may only be performed for one of the following purposes:

a. Gaining a better understanding of disease suffered by, or the causes of ill-health or other abnormality in, humans or animals;

b. The development and safety testing of a medicine essential for the avoidance, prevention, diagnosis or treatment of disease, ill-health or other abnormality suffered by humans or animals;

c. The development and safety testing of other products essential for the avoidance or prevention of disease, ill health or other abnormality suffered by humans or animals.

2. No animal is to be used in a procedure until all reasonable investigations have been carried out to ensure that the research involves no repetition of previous work. The investigations must include enquiries by the responsible authority under Article 8 below; a search of all relevant literature; and a search of all relevant databases.

3. All animals used in procedures should be bred for that purpose alone.

4. All procedures are to be designed and carried out in such a manner as to reduce suffering to the absolute minimum. In particular:

a. All procedures must be carried out under general or local anaesthesia throughout their duration, as appropriate, unless anaesthesia would be more traumatic to the animal than the procedure, or the responsible authority certifies that its use would be wholly incompatible with the object of the procedure;

b. Analgesics or other appropriate methods must be used to minimise suffering at all times.

5. No animal is to be subjected to severe suffering at any time. Should an animal experience such suffering, it is to be immediately killed using a humane method.

6. At the end of a procedure, the personal licence holder is to decide whether an animal should be kept alive or killed by a humane method by a veterinarian or other appropriately trained and qualified person. An animal is not to be kept alive if, although it has been restored to normal health in all other respects, it is likely to experience more than transient suffering. Permissible methods of humane killing are set out in [schedule 2 to the Act].

7. If an animal is to be kept alive at the end of a procedure, it shall receive appropriate care and veterinary attention at all times, until and unless it is released to a new owner.

8. An animal may only be released to a new owner under paragraph (7) as a pet.

9. No animal is to be used in more than one procedure.

Personal licences
1. No one may carry out a procedure except under a personal licence issued by the responsible authority.

2. A personal licence may only be granted where the applicant has the appropriate qualifications, training, experience and character necessary for the procedures in question.

3. A personal licence application is to be endorsed by a person occupying a position of authority in the user establishment employing the applicant, confirming the applicant's suitability to carry out the procedure in question.

4. No personal licence is to be granted to a person under the age of eighteen.

5. A personal licence lapses after five years, or when the personal licence holder leaves the user establishment in question, if this is sooner. Where a licence is due to lapse at the five-year period, renewal may be formally requested from the responsible authority where it is endorsed by the user establishment.

6. A personal licence may be subject to such conditions as the responsible authority considers appropriate.

Project licences
1. A project licence may only be granted for one of the purposes specified in Article 2.

2. A project licence may only be granted to a person who undertakes the overall responsibility for the programme to be specified in the licence.

3. A project licence must specify all of the following: (a) the nature, location and duration of the programme; (b) the number and species of animals involved; (c) the procedures (in detail) comprising the programme; (d) the investigations referred to in Article 2(2); (e) the steps taken to ensure compliance with paragraph (6); (f) the anticipated benefits of the programme; and (g) the steps taken to comply with paragraph (7).

4. In determining whether to grant a project licence, the responsible authority is to weigh the possible suffering of the animals concerned against the benefit likely to be accrued as a result of the programme.

5. To avoid doubt, commercial advantage (whether to any individual, company, institution or to society at large) does not constitute a benefit within paragraph (4) above.

6. The responsible authority must not grant a project licence unless it is satisfied that:

(a) The purpose of the programme to be specified in the licence cannot be achieved satisfactorily by any other reasonably practicable method not entailing the use of animals; and

(b) When a procedure has to be performed, the following conditions are met:

i. Pain, suffering, distress and lasting harm will be avoided wherever possible and otherwise kept to the absolute minimum;
ii. To this end, animals with the lowest degree of neuropsychological sensitivity will be used; and
iii. The minimum number of animals will be used.

7. The responsible authority must not grant a project licence authorising the use of cats, dogs, primates or equidae, unless it is satisfied after appropriate investigation that animals of no other species are suitable for the purposes of the programme to be specified in the licence. Alternatively, it must be determined that it is not practicable to obtain animals of any other species that would be suitable for such a purpose.

8. A project licence may be subject to such conditions as the responsible authority considers appropriate.

Breeding and supplying establishments
1. No one may use an animal in a procedure unless that animal was bred for specifically for that purpose in a breeding establishment licensed by the responsible authority, or in the user establishment where it is contemplated that the procedure may be carried out.

2. No person may supply an animal to a user establishment unless he is licensed as a supplying establishment by the responsible authority.

3. A licence under paragraph (1) above may be subject to such conditions as the responsible authority considers appropriate.

User establishments
1. No procedure may be carried out on an animal unless the establishment where it is to be carried out is licensed as a user establishment by the responsible authority.

2. The user establishment and all equipment to be used in a procedure shall be of such design and standard as to ensure that the procedures are performed as effectively as possible. This would be with the objective of obtaining high-quality and consistent results using the minimum number of animals and the minimum degree of suffering to them.

3. A licence under paragraph (1) above, should specify the following: (i) the person with administrative responsibility for the care of the animals and the functioning of equipment; (ii) a veterinarian, or other suitably qualified person, who will be responsible for providing expert advice on the health and welfare of the animals; and (iii) a named individual responsible for the day-to-day care of all animals at the user establishment.

4. Satisfactory arrangements must be made for the provision of veterinary advice and treatment in the user establishment at all times.

5. A licence under paragraph (1) may be subject to such conditions as the responsible authority considers appropriate.

Care and housing
1. The responsible authority is, having regard to the consensus of informed opinion, to ensure that all animals kept at an establishment are at all times:

(a) provided with housing (including appropriate grouping) in an environment with food, water and care which are appropriate to their health and well-being;

(b) able to satisfy their physiological and behavioural needs (including freedom of movement) to the maximum extent consistent with their use or proposed use in the procedure in question.

2. The standards of housing and care provided shall as a minimum meet those promulgated by the Council of Europe in the Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals Used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes. However, the consensus of informed opinion may require higher standards. Financial considerations are not a material factor in determining the standards of housing and care.

3. The responsible authority is to ensure that all establishments at all times have sufficient staff with appropriate qualifications and training to ensure that the welfare needs of animals are met to the maximum extent possible (financial considerations not being a material factor for this purpose).

4. The conditions of experimental animals and the conditions in which they are kept, must be checked at least once each day (more often where appropriate) and any necessary ameliorative action taken immediately.

5. The responsible authority is to publish regulations or codes of conduct dealing with the housing and care of animals.

Transparency
1. The responsible authority must publish an application for a project licence, in anonymised form, for such period as the responsible authority considers sufficient to enable comments to be made by any member of the public as to whether a licence should be granted.

2. The responsible authority must publish a project licence, once it is granted, in anonymised form.

3. The responsible authority may, for an appropriate period, exclude from publication particular information in an application or project licence (as the case may be), where publication of that information might endanger the safety of a person or would be likely to prejudice a future application for a patent.

4. A data-holder must provide all the results (negative as well as positive) of procedures performed under this Act to the responsible authority.

5. The responsible authority must publicise the fact that it possesses data of specified types and provide bona fide enquirers who may wish to have access to such data with the contact details of the data-holder.

6. A bona fide enquirer is entitled to access the data provided that he pays a fee to the data-holder.

7. If the enquirer and the data-holder are unable to agree to a fee, the case must be referred to an arbitrator appointed by the responsible authority. The latter ruling is to be binding.

8. Paragraphs (4) to (7) above are intended to avoid duplicate animal testing.

Recognition of procedures carried out in other countries
In order to avoid unnecessary repetition of procedures (including any required by law for health and safety purposes), the results of procedures carried out in other countries must be recognised whenever practicable. Where the country is a member of the European Union, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development or the International Standards on Harmonisation then procedures must be recognised.

Statistical information
1. Full details about animals bred, supplied for and used in procedures are to be kept by the breeding, supplying and user establishments. These are to be notified to the responsible authority at least once a year. Detailed information derived from the records is to be made available to the public.

2. The information to be supplied by user establishments is to include information in the categories specified from time to time in Schedule 3.

Ethical committee
1. Each user establishment is to appoint an ethical committee to (a) consider whether an application for a project licence should be made under Article 4; (b) monitor any project licence which is granted; and (c) review it at its conclusion.

2. At least one-third of the committee's members are to be independent of the user establishment.

3. The committee's deliberations are to be made available to the responsible authority.

Advisory committee
1. There is to be an advisory committee to oversee the working of this Act.

2. The committee is to be an independent body whose deliberations will be made available to both the responsible authority and the public.

2. The committee is to produce an annual report to be laid before Parliament and made available to the public.

3. The committee is to include relevant professionals, such as medical practitioners, veterinary surgeons, biologists, as well as animal welfare representatives and at least one lawyer. At least half of the committee members must not be involved in animal experimentation or the animal experimentation industry.

4. All applications for project licences under Article 4 are to be sent to the committee initially for scrutiny and recommendation. Where the responsible authority does not accept the committee's advice, its reasons must be fully documented and made available to the public.

5. Members of the committee are to have access to (a) inspection reports under Article 14(4); and (b) any other relevant information held by user establishments or the responsible authority as in accordance with a reasonable request.

6. Members of the committee are to have access to any establishment at any reasonable time.

Funding for alternative methods
The responsible authority is to co-ordinate and fund research into the 'Three Rs'.

Enforcement
1. The responsible authority is to appoint and train sufficient inspectors with appropriate qualifications and experience in animal welfare to enforce this Act.

2. Inspectors are to be independent of any person, company or institution involved in procedures.

3. Inspectors are to have the power to enter any establishment at any time in order to carry out their functions.

4. Inspectors are to complete detailed inspection reports which will be made available to the advisory committee appointed under Article 12, the responsible authority and, in summary and anonymised form, to the public.

Penalties
The responsible authority may revoke or suspend a licence for good reason. A suspension may be subject to conditions.

Any person who breaches any of the provisions of this Act commits an offence and is liable to conviction.

Schedules
It is recommended that the legislation is laid out with the following Schedules:
Schedule 1 [definition of 'animal']
Schedule 2 [humane killing]
Schedule 3 [statistics]













SECTION 6

SUGGESTED LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS FOR
COMPANION ANIMALS (PETS)

Introduction
A key principle underlying this section is that companion animals should only be kept when there is full personal commitment to the animals' welfare. A core provision is that companion animals must always be provided with shelter, exercise, care, food, water and companionship as appropriate to their physiological and behavioural needs. The suggested provisions deal with a range of issues that typically lead to health and welfare problems for companion animals:

" Measures to prevent stray animals, including identification and neutering;

" Restrictions on use, such as a prohibition on the use of animals for fights;

" Prohibition of mutilations carried out for non-therapeutic reasons;

" Prohibition of breeding for certain external features to the detriment of the animal's health or welfare;

" Licensing and control of breeding establishments;

" Licensing and control of sellers and dealers;

" Licensing and control of boarding establishments;

" Killing/euthanasia. Regrettably the humane destruction of healthy animals may sometimes be unavoidable. Killing must be carried out by a method that keeps suffering to a minimum, and by a veterinarian or other appropriately trained person.

Suggested legislative provisions

General
1. Any person who keeps a pet animal or who has agreed to look after it shall be responsible for its complete health and welfare.

2. Any person who is keeping a pet animal or who is looking after it shall provide accommodation, care and attention which takes account of its physiological and behavioural needs, including appropriate food and water, shelter, exercise and companionship.

3. No non-domesticated animals shall be kept as companion animals. There should be a strict provision against this, or a list of animals that can be kept (in the regulations), with the requirement to seek permission (or a licence) for the keeping of any other species. The licence would only be granted in exceptional cases - such as the keeping of wild animals in a sanctuary where release is not possible.

4. Nobody shall cause a companion animal any avoidable suffering, pain or distress.

5. Sick or injured animals shall be provided with care without delay. Where necessary, veterinary advice shall be sought. Where euthanasia is necessary to relieve suffering, this should be done immediately by a qualified or competent person, and with the minimum suffering, pain and distress.

Measures to avoid stray animals
1. Nobody shall abandon a companion animal.

2. Dogs and cats (and any other companion animal which cause local stray problems) shall be permanently identified by some appropriate means, which causes no enduring pain, suffering or distress, such as tattooing (or microchip). Each shall be given a unique identification number, which will be recorded in a central register together with the full contact details of the owner or keeper.

3. It shall be compulsory for dogs to wear collars, clearly indicating their owner or keepers' full contact details, at all times when outside the territory of their home.

4. Dog taxes shall be introduced for the acquisition of any new companion dogs. The tax shall be well publicized before it is introduced. The tax could be waived for certain groups, such as pensioners and the blind. The funds raised from the tax must be reinvested in stray control and associated educational programmes.

5. Neutering shall be promoted to reduce the unplanned breeding of cats and dogs. Reduced dog taxes could be applied to neutered animals.

6. Any person finding an injured or suffering stray companion animal shall seek the animal's owner, and if not successful, report this to the competent authorities without delay.

7. Where it is considered necessary to remove unaccompanied or unidentifiable animals, they shall be caught with the minimum of physical and mental suffering to the animal.

8. Where stray animals are housed after capture, this shall be in conformity with standards to be established by the competent authority.

9. Where it is considered necessary to kill unwanted animals, this shall always be done in conformity with paragraphs [4 and 5 of the 'General' section above].

Information and education
The competent authority shall carry out education and information programmes in 'responsible companion animals' ownership'. These would include the discouragement of impulse purchase, the stress and responsibilities involved in companion animal ownership, and promote neutering.

Restriction on the use of companion animals
1. Organizing or attending animal fights shall be prohibited.

2. The use of dogs for draught purposes shall be prohibited.

3. The giving of animals for prizes, rewards or free gifts shall be prohibited.

4. Companion animals shall not be bred or used for commercial purposes, such as the production of food, furs, skins etc. (A derogation maybe needed for licensed scientific procedures for purpose bred animals).

5. Unwanted or ownerless companion animals shall not be used for scientific procedures.

6. The use of animals in competitions that test speed, strength or endurance shall be prohibited, unless specific permission is given by the competent authority (it could, for example, give special permission for certain events that were not detrimental to the animals' health and welfare, e.g. some horse races). Each competition shall be reviewed and no permission granted where the animals' health and welfare is in danger. Where such competitions are permitted, this shall be conditional upon compliance with certain rules such as:

a. Rules on the age and health condition of the animals permitted to take part;
b. Rules on the frequency with which animals may take part;
c. Rules on veterinary presence at such competitions;
d. Rules on the construction of tracks and obstacles;
e. Prohibition on the use of certain animals.

7. No animal used for races or competitions shall be subjected to the administration of any substance or treatments, which affect the animal's performance or temperament (e.g. doping).

8. No companion animal shall be trained in a way that is detrimental to its health and welfare, especially by forcing it to exceed its natural capacities or strength by employing artificial aids which cause unnecessary suffering, pain or distress.

9. No animals shall be used for shows, advertising or similar purposes where this entails suffering, pain or distress.

Surgical procedures and manipulations
1. No non-therapeutic 'mutilations' shall be carried out on companion animals, except neutering, which shall be promoted for social and welfare reasons, and the ear tipping of feral cats when used as a sign of neutering. Prohibited procedures shall include de-clawing, ear cropping, tail docking and the destruction of vocal cords.

2. Any surgical operation that may inflict suffering on an animal, shall be performed only by a veterinarian, unless the operation is urgent and delay would be detrimental to the animal's welfare. Suffering and pain shall be reduced to the greatest possible extent.

3. The competent authority shall lay down more detailed rules on surgical and similar operations, including permissible methods, use of anaesthesia and any age limitations.

4. There shall be a moratorium on the use of genetic techniques on companion animals (or a licensing system, with stringent controls and supervision).

Dangerous dogs
If deemed necessary, restrictions could be introduced to control certain breeds of dog, which have been proven to be dangerous. Subsequent regulations could include provisions on compulsory registration and identification, muzzling in public places, compulsory neutering and a ban on imports.

Breeding
1. Any breeder or breeding establishment producing companion animals for commercial sale, shall be licensed and controlled by the competent authority. Standards shall be laid down for breeding establishments. Controls shall include restrictions on the minimum and maximum age of breeding bitches, and on the number and regularity of litters. Licenses shall only be granted where conditions of housing and care are acceptable.

2. Licensed breeders shall be required to keep full records of all litters bred, together with the sales and purchases of companion animals. These records shall be available for scrutiny and, if necessary, removal by the competent authorities at all reasonable hours.

3. Selective breeding for certain external features, which may be to the detriment of the animal's health and welfare shall be prohibited.

4. Any person who selects companion animals for breeding shall be responsible for having regard to any anatomical, physiological and behavioural characteristics, which are likely to put at risk the health, and welfare of either the offspring or the female parent.

Selling/ dealing
1. Any person selling or dealing in companion animals shall be licensed and controlled by the competent authority. The licence will stipulate certain welfare requirements that are to be fulfilled.

2. Licensed dealers shall only be permitted to purchase companion animals from licensed breeders. Licensed breeders shall be encouraged to sell their own litters directly, rather than passing these through a dealer.

3. Licensed dealers shall be required to keep full records of all purchases and sales. These records shall be available for scrutiny and, if necessary, removal by the competent authorities, at all reasonable hours, without prior notice.

4. Companion animals shall only be sold in licensed venues. Licenses shall only be granted where there are suitable conditions for the animals, veterinary attention and official control.

5. When a companion animal is sold, the full history of the animal, including its former owner's and breeder's details shall be available on request (with the exception of impounded stray animals where the information is not available).

6. No companion animal shall be sold to persons under the age of 16 years.

Boarding
Boarding establishments for companion animals shall be licensed and controlled by the competent authority. Standards shall be laid down for boarding establishments. Boarding establishments with inadequate facilities or care shall be given notices of improvement, whereby if specified conditions are not complied with in set periods of time, they will be banned from trading.

Shelters/ refuges
Shelters and refuges for companion animals shall also be licensed and controlled by the competent authority. Standards will be laid down for such shelters and refuges.

Transport
Companion animals shall be transported so as to avoid suffering, pain or distress. Transportation shall comply with the previous legislation for the transport of live animals.

Import/ export
No companion animal shall be imported or exported without the approval of the competent authority, and the issue of an import or export licence. Full and detailed import and export statistics shall be kept for companion animals, divided by species and destination/ origin. Arrangements for the quarantine of imported animals shall be laid down.

Killing/ euthanasia
1. Only a veterinarian or other trained and authorized person shall kill a companion animal, except in an emergency to terminate an animal's suffering when veterinary or other competent assistance cannot be quickly obtained. The competent authority will determine an authorization procedure for euthanasia technicians, based on training and veterinary accreditation.

2. All killing shall be done with the minimum of physical and mental suffering. The method chosen shall either:

a) Cause immediate loss of consciousness and death; or
b) Begin with the induction of deep general anaesthesia to be followed by a step, which will ultimately and certainly cause death without recovery of consciousness.

3. The person responsible for the killing shall make sure that the animal is dead before the carcass is disposed of in any way. It is recommended that bodies are retained until the onset of rigor mortis, to prevent any accidental disposal of living bodies.

4. The following killing methods shall be prohibited:
a. Drowning and other methods of suffocation;
b. The use of any poisonous substance or drug, the dose and application of which cannot be controlled so as to provide the desired result mentioned in the paragraph above;
c. Electrocution unless preceded by immediate induction of loss of consciousness.

Enforcement
The competent authority shall be identified, and a duty to enforce placed on it. The competent authority shall be proactive in enforcing the law, rather than just responding to complaints. Powers of entry shall be given and penalty provisions included. Penalties shall cover:

" Fines;
" Prison sentences;
" Ban on keeping animals;
" Removal of animals.

Ethical committee
1. An Ethical Committee for Companion Animals shall be established to advise the appropriate Government Minister on all aspects of companion animal welfare, including:

" Problems with existing laws/and enforcement;
" New regulations necessary;
" New issues of concern regarding companion animals;
" New and relevant research in the field of companion animals.

2. The Ethical Committee shall include representatives of the main interest groups and experts; for example, animal protection society representatives and veterinarians as well as scientists and academics studying companion animal/human bond, companion animal behaviour etc., and breeder groups such as dealer and consumer representatives.

SECTION 7

SUGGESTED LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS FOR ANIMALS IN ENTERTAINMENT

Introduction
The WSPA opposes the use of animals in sport or for entertainment when such use is contrary to the animals' nature, or when it may involve the suffering of or adversely affect the animals' welfare. This section is designed to restrict the use of animals in entertainment as far as possible and to ensure that where they are used, rules exist to prevent suffering, pain and distress.

1. General - Animals shall not be kept, trained or used for entertainment purposes, including public displays, if this causes suffering, pain or distress to the animal.

2. Menageries - Animals shall not be shown in travelling menageries.

3. Wild animals - Wild animals shall not be used in circus performances, performances in music halls, theatres or similar shows.

4. Zoological gardens - Zoological gardens, zoological parks etc. shall not be established without a licence/permit from the competent authority. The competent authority shall lay down rules on the standards, design and operation of such establishments, and on inspection.

5. Existing zoological gardens shall be inspected and, where applicable, served with improvement notices specifying changes needed to obtain a licence/permit. A one- (or two-) year transitional period will be allowed to enable such zoos to comply with the necessary licensing/permit requirements. If compliance is not possible within the stipulated period, the zoo will have to close.

6. Licences/permits shall not be granted for zoos, which do not have a substantial conservation programmes.

7. Dolphinaria - Dolphinaria shall be prohibited. Existing Dolphinaria should be subjected to stringent standards, with the aim of closure as soon as practicable.

8. Circus and other animal exhibitions - Circuses and other animal exhibitions shall be prohibited unless the competent authority issues a special licence/permit to the operator. Such a licence/permit shall only be granted in exceptional circumstances, and only for a limited (specified) period, during which the health and welfare of the animals in the exhibition can be assured.

9. Rodeos shall be prohibited.

10. Animals shall not be trained or used for film, still photographs, video or television productions unless their health and welfare can be assured, in training, during production or post-production. Rules and conditions must exist to prevent any animal from suffering, pain or distress.

11. Races and competitions - Animals shall not be trained or used in races or other competitions, which test speed, strength or endurance, unless such races or competitions have been permitted under an order of the competent authority. The competent authority shall only issue such an order when the health and welfare of the animals can be assured, and conditions, rules and controls exist to prevent any animal from suffering, pain or distress. Race events and other competitions known to cause animal suffering should be subject to a ban.

12. The rules established in accordance with paragraph 11 above shall include:

a) Rules on the age and health condition of the animals taking part;
b) Rules on the frequency in which animals may take part;
c) Rules on the presence of a veterinarian at such competitions;
d) Rules on the construction of tracks and obstacles;
e) A prohibition on the use of specified animals in competitions.

13. Any animal trained for, or taking part in, a race or other competition shall not be subjected to doping or any other inappropriate measures that may affect the animal's capacity or temperament.

14. No animal shall be used as a live lure to train other animals for racing, or for any other purpose.

15. No animal shall be used as a target for training or competition shooting purposes.

16. Horse riding, donkey, pony and carriage rides - No persons shall operate a horse riding or horse boarding establishment or any pony/donkey/carriage ride without a licence/permit from the competent authority. The competent authority shall lay down rules on the standards, design and operation of such establishments and rides (as appropriate), and on inspections.

17. Animal fights - No person shall promote, arrange, participate in, attend, assist at, receive money for, or in any way facilitate an event involving the fighting, baiting, harassing or tormenting of animals. No person shall breed, sell, or offer for sale animals for fighting purposes.

18. 'Sport' killing of captive animals - No person shall promote, arrange, participate in, attend, assist at or receive money for any event in which captive animals are liberated for the purpose of being killed when liberated, or where animals in an enclosure are permitted to be killed for sport.

Taking or killing of wild animals

Introduction
The WSPA is in principle opposed to the taking or killing of wild animals or the infliction of suffering on them. This includes the taking or killing of wild animals for the purposes of sport.

There shall be a prohibition on the taking and killing of wild animals for purposes not essential to humans or the welfare of the animals, particularly where they do not pose a threat to the safety or security of humans.

1. Hunting - Where, despite the previous paragraph, hunting is permitted, legislation shall determine the species and number of animals permitted. Hunting with hounds shall not be permitted.

2. If hunting is permitted, welfare safeguards shall be introduced including:

" Licensing - Only trained and certified marksmen should be granted a shooting licence.

" Method of killing - Only hunting involving fast and humane killing methods may be permitted. Killing with ineffective weapons, such as crossbows, should be prohibited. Where animals cannot be killed humanely under the prevailing methods and conditions, there shall be a prohibition on killing.

" Trapping - Any traps that cause suffering, pain, injury or distress shall be banned (in the manufacture, possession, advertising or sale of such products). Any products obtained that use such traps shall be banned.

" Oversight/ enforcement - Controls are needed to ensure that quotas are not breached, and that no unnecessary suffering is caused.

SECTION 8

FURTHER INFORMATION

For further information on animal welfare and legislation, please contact:

The Communications Department
World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA)
14th Floor, 89 Albert Embankment
London, SE1 7TP
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)207 587 5000
Fax: +44 (0)207 793 0208
Email: wspa@wspa.org.uk (please head your email for the attention of the 'Communications Department')
Web: www.wspa-international.org

Законодательство

Информационный бюллетень "Виты" № 11. 2005 год



Наверх


ВАЖНО!

Гамбургер без прикрас
Фильм поможет вам сделать первый шаг для спасения животных, людей и планеты

О коррупции в госсекторе
О коррупции в госсекторе

О «священной корове» «Москвариуме», неправовых методах и китовой тюрьме
О «священной корове»
«Москвариуме»,
неправовых методах
и китовой тюрьме

Петиция против использования животных в цирках
ПЕТИЦИЯ
ЗАКРОЙ
ПРЕСТУПНЫЙ ЦИРК

Самое откровенное интервью Ирины Новожиловой о цирках
Самое откровенное интервью
Ирины Новожиловой
о ситуации с цирками

Безмолвный ковчег. Джульет Геллатли и Тони Уордл
Разоблачение убийцы

Открытое письмо Елены Сафоновой Путину
Открытое письмо
Елены Сафоновой
президенту

Вега́нская кухня
Вега́нская кухня

Цирк: иллюзия любви
Цирк: иллюзия любви

В Комиссию по работе над Красной книгой России включили... серийного убийцу животных Ястржембского
В Комиссию по
Красной книге
включили...
серийного убийцу
Восстанови Правосудие в России. Истязания животных в цирках
Безнаказанные истязания
животных в цирках

За кулисами цирка - 1
За кулисами цирка

Звёзды против цирка с животными - 2. Трейлер
Звёзды против цирка
с животными - 2
За кулисами цирка - 2
За кулисами цирка 2

ВИТА о правах животных
ВИТА о правах животных = вега́нстве

Грязная война против Российского Движения за права животных
Грязная война против
Российского Движения
за права животных

ЦИРК: ПЫТКИ ЖИВОТНЫХ
Цирк: новогодние
пытки животных

ГОСПОДСТВО. DOMINION. Русский перевод: ВИТА - ФИЛЬМ
ГОСПОДСТВО. DOMINION
Русский перевод: ВИТА

Какой Вы сильный!
Какой Вы сильный!

Первая веганская соцреклама
Первая веганская соцреклама

Самое откровенное интервью Ирины Новожиловой о цирках в России
Самое откровенное
интервью
Ирины Новожиловой

Невидимые страдания: <br>изнанка туризма<br> с дикими животными
Невидимые страдания:
изнанка туризма
с дикими животными

Контактный зоопарк: незаконно, жестоко, опасно
Контактный зоопарк:
незаконно, жестоко, опасно

Авторекламой по мехам! ВИДЕО
Авторекламой по бездушию

ЖЕСТОКОСТЬ И<br> БЕЗЗАКОНИЕ В РОССИИ<br>
А воз и ныне там:<br> найди пару отличий 12 лет спустя
ЖЕСТОКОСТЬ И
БЕЗЗАКОНИЕ В РОССИИ
А воз и ныне там:
найди пару отличий 12 лет спустя

Белого медведя<br> в наморднике<br> заставляют петь и<br> танцевать в цирке
Белого медведя
в наморднике
заставляют петь и
танцевать в цирке

Великобритании запретила использование животных в цирках
Великобритании запретила
использование животных
в цирках

О страшных зоозащитниках и беззащитных укротителях
О свирепых зоозащитниках
и беззащитных укротителях

НОТА ПРОТЕСТА
ПОДПИШИТЕ ПЕТИЦИЮ
НОТА ПРОТЕСТА
Путину

Россию превращают в кузницу орков?
Россию превращают
в кузницу орков?

Вместо «золотых» бордюров и плитки в Москве - спасенная от пожаров Сибирь!
Вместо «золотых» бордюров
и плитки в Москве
- спасенная от пожаров Сибирь!

24 апреля - Международный день против экспериментов на животных
РАЗОБЛАЧЕНИЕ ВИВИСЕКЦИИ
ВПЕРВЫЕ <br>Веганская соцреклама<br> «Животные – не еда!»<br> ко Дню Вегана
ВПЕРВЫЕ
Вега́нская соцреклама
«Животные – не еда!»

Центру защиты прав животных ВИТА стукнуло... 25 лет
Центру защиты прав животных ВИТА стукнуло... 25 лет

Концерт к Юбилею Международного Дня защиты прав животных в Саду Эрмитаж, Москва
Концерт к Юбилею Международного Дня защиты прав животных

Друзья! Поддержите
Российское Движение
за права животных

Концерт за права животных в Москве
Концерт за права животных в Москве

Спаси животных - закрой жестокий цирк в своей стране
Спаси животных - закрой жестокий цирк в своей стране

Подпишите ПЕТИЦИЮ За город, свободный от жестокости!
Подпишите ПЕТИЦИЮ
За город, свободный от жестокости!
А ну-ка, отними:<br> Аттракцион<br> невиданной щедрости<br> "МЫ ловим, а спасайте - ВЫ!"
А ну-ка, отними:
Аттракцион
невиданной щедрости
"МЫ ловим,
а спасайте - ВЫ!"

Запрет цирка с животными в США: 2 штат - Гавайи
Запрет цирка с животными в США: 2 штат - Гавайи

ПЕТИЦИЯ: Запретить контактные зоопарки – объекты пожарной опасности в торговых центрах
ПЕТИЦИЯ: Запретить контактные зоопарки

Ау! Президент, где же обещанный закон?
Президент, где обещанный закон?

В Международный день цирка стартовал бойкот жестокого цирка
Бойкот жестокого цирка

Барселона – город для вега́нов («веган-френдли»)
Барселона – город для вега́нов («веган-френдли»)

Гитлер. Фальсификация истории
Гитлер. Фальсификация истории

К 70-летию Победы. Видеоролик Виты на стихи Героя Советского Союза Эдуарда Асадова
Ко Дню Победы
ЭКСТРЕННО! Требуем принять Закон о запрете тестирования косметики на животных в России
Петиция за запрет
тестов на животных

ПЕТИЦИЯ За запрет операции по удалению когтей у кошки
ПЕТИЦИЯ За запрет операции
по удалению когтей у кошки
ЖЕСТОКОСТЬ И БЕЗЗАКОНИЕ В РОССИИ:
Требуем внести запрет притравочных станций в Федеральный Закон о защите животных<br>
ПРИТРАВКА
Контактный зоопарк: незаконно, жестоко, опасно
"Контактный зоопарк"

Причины эскалации жестокости в России
Причины эскалации жестокости в России

Жестокость - признак деградации
Жестокость - признак деградации
1.5 млн подписей переданы президенту
1.5 млн подписей
за закон
переданы президенту

ВНИМАНИЕ! В России<br> легализуют <br> притравочные станции!
ВНИМАНИЕ
Россия XXI
легализует притравку?!
Более 150 фото притравки<br> переданы ВИТОЙ<br> Бурматову В.В.<br> в Комитет по экологии Госдумы
ПРИТРАВКА
ПОЗОР РОССИИ

Ирина Новожилова: «Сказка про белого бычка или Как власти в очередной раз закон в защиту животных принимали»<br>

«Сказка про
белого бычка»
Год собаки в России
Год собаки в России
Концерт <br>за права животных<br> у Кремля «ЭМПАТИЯ»<br> ко Дню вегана
Концерт у Кремля
за права животных

«Что-то сильно<br> не так в нашем<br> королевстве»<br>
«Что-то сильно
не так в нашем
королевстве»
Китай предпринимает<br> шаги к отказу<br> от тестирования<br> на животных
Китай предпринимает
шаги к отказу
от тестирования
на животных

Джон Фавро и диснеевская<br>«Книга джунглей»<br> спасают животных<br>
Кино без жестокости к животным

Первый Вегетарианский телеканал России - 25 июля выход в эфир<br>
Первый Вегетарианский телеканал России
25 июля выход в эфир

Биоэтика
Биоэтика

Здоровье нации
Здоровье нации. ВИДЕО

Спаси животных - закрой цирк!<br> Цирк: пытки и убийства животных
15 апреля
Международная акция
За цирк без животных!

Ранняя история Движения против цирков с животными в России. 1994-2006
Лучший аргумент
против лжи циркачей?
Факты! ВИДЕО

Российские звёзды против цирка с животными (короткий вариант) ВИДЕО
Звёзды против цирка
с животными - ВИДЕО

За запрет жестокого цирка
Спаси животных
закрой жестокий цирк

Контактный зоопарк: незаконно, жестоко, опасно
Контактный зоопарк: незаконно, жестоко,
опасно

День без мяса
День без мяса

Автореклама Цирк без животных!
Спаси животных
- закрой цирк!

Бразильский Карнавал: жестокость к животным ради веселья людей
Бразильский Карнавал:
жестокость к животным

Поставщики Гермеса и Прада разоблачены: Страусят убивают ради «роскошных» сумок
Поставщики Гермеса и
Прада разоблачены

Здоровое питание для жизни – для женщин
Здоровое питание
для жизни –
для женщин

Освободите Нарнию!
Свободу Нарнии!

Веганы: ради жизни и будущего планеты. Веганское движение в России
Веганы: ради жизни
и будущего планеты.
Веганское движение
в России

Косатки на ВДНХ
Россия - 2?
В
Цирк: новогодние пытки
ПЕТИЦИЯ
Чёрный плавник
на русском языке
Россия за запрет притравки
Яшка
Российские звёзды против цирка с животными
Впервые в России! Праздник этичной моды «Животные – не одежда!» в Коломенском
Животные – не одежда!
ВИТА: история борьбы. Веганская революция
экстренного расследования
Россия, где Твоё правосудие?
Хватит цирка!
ПЕТИЦИЯ о наказании убийц белой медведицы
Россия, где правосудие?
Впервые в России! Праздник этичной моды «Животные – не одежда!» в Коломенском
4 дня из жизни морского котика
Белый кит. Белуха. Полярный дельфин
Анна Ковальчук - вегетарианка
Анна Ковальчук - вегетарианка
Ирина Новожилова:
25 лет на вегетарианстве
История зелёного движения России с участием Елены Камбуровой
История зелёного
движения России
с участием
Елены Камбуровой
 Спаси дельфина, пока он живой!
Спаси дельфина, пока он живой!
Вечное заключение
Вечное заключение
Журнал Elle в августе: о веганстве
Elle о веганстве
Россия за Международный запрет цирка
Россия за Международный запрет цирка
Выигранное
Преступники - на свободе, спасатели - под судом
Океанариум подлежит закрытию
Закрытие океанариума
Закрыть в России переездные дельфинарии!
Дельфинарий
Спаси дельфина,
пока он живой!
Ответный выстрел
Ответный выстрел
Голубь Пеля отпраздновал своё 10-летие в составе «Виты»
Голубь Пеля: 10 лет в составе «Виты»
Проводы цирка в России 2015
Проводы цирка
Россия-2015
Цирк в Анапе таскал медвежонка на капоте
Цирк в Анапе таскал медвежонка на капоте
Девушка и амбалы
Девушка и амбалы
Hugo Boss отказывается от меха
Hugo Boss против меха
Защити жизнь - будь веганом!
Защити жизнь -
будь веганом!
Земляне
Земляне
Деятельность «шариковых» - угроза государству
Деятельность «шариковых»
- угроза государству
Почему стильные женщины России не носят мех
Победа! Узник цирка освобождён!
Океанариум - тюрьма косаток
Защитники животных наградили Олега Меньшикова Дипломом имени Эллочки-людоедки
НОВЫЕ МАТЕРИАЛЫ:
Меньшиков кормил богему мясом животных из Красной книги - Экспресс газета
Rambler's Top100   Яндекс цитирования Яндекс.Метрика
Copyright © 2003-2017 НП Центр защиты прав животных «ВИТА»
E-MAILВэб-мастер